Shen Xiaoming was born in Shangyu County, Zhejiang Province. He attended Wenzhou Medical College and obtained a degree in pediatrics. He then attended Shanghai Jiaotong University and obtained a doctoral degree in pediatric medicine. After graduating he became the deputy head and then head of the Xinhua Hospital, then president of the Second Medical University of Shanghai, then executive vice president of Shanghai Jiaotong University. He then entered the commission on education and health of Shanghai. In January 2008, he was named vice mayor of Shanghai. In May 2013, he was named party chief of Pudong, joining the municipal Standing Committee two months later. On April 8, 2015, he succeeded Ai Baojun to become head administrator of the Shanghai Free-Trade Zone. In October 2016, Shen was appointed as the Deputy Minister of Education, Shen then served as of Hainan from 2017 to 2020. In 2020 he became Secretary of the Hainan CPC Provincial Committee.